Gender in Politics, Pamela Paxton, Sheri Kunovich, and Melanie M. Hughes; Lane Kenworthy and Melissa Malami, Gender Inequality in Political Representation: A Worldwide Comparative Analysis Social Forces (1999) 78 (1): 235 – 268 doi: 10.1093/sf/78.1.235; Leslie Schwindt‐Bayer, Gender Quotas and Women’s Political Participation in Latin America. Even in democratic societies in which gender equality is legally mandated, gender discrimination occurs in politics, both in regards to presumptions about political allegiances that fall along gender lines, and disparate gender representation within representative democracies. The nature and causes of gender inequality is multifaceted and complex and beyond reduction to a few core factors, but in this section we’ll review some of the key moments in history that contribute to this story, addressing various manifestations of inequality, and briefly consider their effects. Other scholars instead measure the political dimension of gender inequality by examining the duration of female suffrage, suggesting that if women have had the right to vote for a long time, it is more likely that a more gender-equal norm has made its way more broadly into society and that women practice their political power (Bussmann, 2007; Caprioli, 2000; Caprioli & Boyer, 2001).
The lack of a clearly established and robust relationship between political gender inequality and IMRs in these U.S. studies is particularly puzzling given the evidence of such a relationship in the developing world. Goal 5, to "Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls" is known as the stand-alone gender goal, because it is dedicated to achieving these ends. Political Gender Inequality. Exploring the ‘how’ of gender inequality in the context of the workplace (including political roles) – to cover gendered job roles, pay gap, opportunity and promotion (e.g.
According to the IPS report Billionaire Bonanza: The Forbes 400 and the Rest of Us, the median American household has only $81,400 in wealth.. This discrepancy may be attributable to differences in the conceptualization and measurement of political gender inequality. By the mid-1990s women had acquired suffrage rights in 96% of all nations around the world (Ramirez, Soysal & Shanahan 1997). The gender divide issue is worsened by the fact that whereas it is known in different countries across the globe that gender inequality in education exists, little has been done to address it. The wealth gap between the presidential candidates and average Americans could hardly be more stark. Gender Political Inequality / 239 on women's share in parliament among the most affluent democratic nations as of 1990. A third political factor that may affect the proportion of women in national parliaments is women's voting rights.